- A paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of the following page/column, thus separated from the rest of the text.
- A paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the bottom of a page/column.
- A word, part of a word, or very short line that appears by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans result in too much white space between paragraphs or at the bottom of a page.
Orphans are moved to the next page with the rest of the paragraph. For widows, lines are moved from the bottom of one page to the top of the next.
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